You will find here a collection of example of use cases for several features of dar suite command-line tools.
This topic has for objective to show the different methods available to perform a remote backup (a backup of a system using a remote storage). It does not describe the remote storage itself, nor the way to access it, but the common ways to do so. For a precise description/recipies on how to use dar with ssh, netcat, ftp or sftp, see the topics following this one.
Between these two hosts, we could also use NFS and we could use dar as usually, eventually adding an IPSEC VPN if the underlying network would not be secur (backup over Internet, ...), there is nothing very complicated and this is a valid solution.
We could also split the backup in very small slices (using dar's -s and eventually -S option) slices that would be moved to/from the storage before the backup process to continue creating/reading the next one. We could even make use of one or more of the dar's -E -F and -~ options to automate the process and get a pretty viable backup process.
But what if for any reasons these previous methods were not acceptable for our use context?
As a last resort, we can leverage the fact that dar can use its standard input and output to work, and pipe these to any arbitrary command giving us the greatest freedom available. In the following we will find list two different ways to do so:
- single pipe
- dual pipes
dar can output its archive to its standard output instead of a given file. To activate it, use "-" as basename. Here is an example:
dar -c - -R / -z | some_program
dar -c - -R / -z > named_pipe_or_file
Note, that file splitting is not available as it has not much meaning when writing to a pipe. At the other end of the pipe (on the remote host), the data can be redirected to a file, with proper filename (something that matches "*.1.dar").
some_other_program > backup_name.1.dar
It is also possible to redirect the output to
which can in turn, on the
remote host, split the data flow into several slices, pausing between them
if necessary, exactly as dar is able to do:
some_other_program | dar_xform -s 100M - backup_name
this will create
backup_name.2.dar and so on. The resulting archive is totally
compatible with those directly generated by dar.
some_other_program can be
anything you want.
For restoration, the process implies dar to read an archive from a pipe,
which is possible adding the
--sequential-read option. This
has however a drawback compared to the normal way dar behaves as it cannot
anymore seek to where is locarted one's file data but has to sequentially
read the whole backup (same way tar behaves), the only consequence
is a longer processing time espetially when restoring only a few files.
On the storage host, we would use:
dar_xform backup_name - | some_other_program # or if archive is composed of a single slice some_other_program < backup_name.1.dar
While on the host to restore we would use:
some_program | dar -x - --sequential-read ...other options...
Here with a single pipe, the only possible way is to rely on the operation of catalogue isolation. This operation can be performed on the storage host and the resulting isolated catalogue can the be transferted through a pipe back to the host to backup. But there is a better way: on-fly isolation.
dar -c - -R / -z -@ isolated_full_catalogue | some_program
This will produce a small file named
on the local host (the host to backup), something we can then use to
create a differential/incremental backup:
dar -c - -R / -z -@ isolated_diff_catalgue -A isolated_full_catalogue | some_program
We can then remove the
keep the new
isolated_diff_catalogue to proceed further for
incremental backups. For differential backup, we would keep
isolated_full_catalogue.1.dar and would use the -@ option
to create an on-fly isolated catalogue only when creating the full backup.
The restoration process here is not different from what we saw above for the full backup. We will restore the full backup, then the differential and incremental, following their order of creation.
To overcome the limited performance met when reading an archive using
a single pipe, we can use a pair of pipes instead and rely on
dar_slave on the remote storage host.
If we specify "-" as the backup basename for a reading operation (-l, -t, -d, -x, or to -A when used with -C or -c), dar and dar_slave will use their standard input and output to communicate. The input of the first is expect to receive the output of the second and vice versa.
We could test this with a pair of named pipes
toslave and use shell redirection on dar and dar_slave
to make the glue. But this will not work due to the shell behavior:
dar and dar_slave would get blocked upon opening of the first named pipe,
waiting for the peer to open it also, even before they have started
(dead lock at shell level).
To overcome this issue met with named pipes, there is -i and -o options that help: they receive a filename as argument, which may be a named pipe. The argument provided to -i is used instead of stdin and the one provided to -o is used instead of stdout. Note that -i and -o options are only available if "-" is used as basename. Let's take an example:
Let's assume we want to restore an archive from the remote backup server. Thus there we have to run dar_slave this way:
mkfifo /tmp/todar /tmp/toslave dar_slave
-o /tmp/todar -i /tmp/toslavebackup_name some_program_remote < /tmp/todar some_other_program_remote > /tmp/toslave
some_program_remote to read the data
and making it available to the host we want to restore for dar to be able
to read it, while
some_other_program_remote receive the output from dar
and write it to
On the local host you have to run dar this way:
mkfifo /tmp/todar /tmp/toslave dar -x -
-i /tmp/todar -o /tmp/toslave-v ... some_program_local > /tmp/todar some_other_program_local < /tmp/toslave
some_program_local communicating with
some_program_remote and writes the data received from dar_slave
/tmp/todar named pipe. While in the other direction
dar's output is read by
/tmp/toslave then sent it (by a way that is out of the scope
of this document) to
some_other_program_remote that in turn
makes it available to dar_slave as seen above.
This applies also to differential backups when it comes to read the archive of
reference by mean of -A option. In the previous single pipe context, we used
an isolated catalogue. We can still do the same here, but can also leverage this
feature espetially when it comes to binary delta that imply reading the delta
signature in addition to the metadata, something not possible with
--sequential-read mode: We then come to this following architecture:
LOCAL HOST REMOTE HOST +-----------------+ +-----------------------------+ | filesystem | | backup of reference | | | | | | | | | | | | | | V | | V | | +-----+ | backup of reference | +-----------+ | | | DAR |--<-]=========================[-<--| DAR_SLAVE | | | | |-->-]=========================[->--| | | | +-----+ | orders to dar_slave | +-----------+ | | | | | +-----------+ | | +--->---]=========================[->--| DAR_XFORM |--> backup| | | saved data | +-----------+ to slices| +-----------------+ +-----------------------------+
with dar on localhost using the following syntax, reading from a pair of fifo the reference archive (-A option) and producing the differential backup to its standard output:
/tmp/toslave /tmp/todarsome_program_local > /tmp/todar some_other_program_local < /tmp/toslave dar -c - -A - -i /tmp/todar -o /tmp/toslave[...other options...] | some_third_program_local
While dar_slave is run this way on the remote host:
/tmp/toslave /tmp/todarsome_program_remote < /tmp/todar some_other_program_remote & gt; /tmp/toslave dar_slave -i /tmp/toslave -o /tmp/todarref_backup
last dar_xform receives the differential backup and here splits it into 1 giga slices adding a sha1 hash to each:
some_third_program_remote | dar_xform -s 1G -3 sha1
the netcat (nc) program is a simple but insecure (no authentication, no data ciphering) approach to make link between dar and dar_slave or dar and dar_xform as presented in the previous topic.
The context in which will take place the following examples is the one of a "local" host named "flower" has to be backup or restored form/to a remote host called "honey" (OK, the name of the machines are silly...)
Creating a full backup
nc -l -p 5000 > backup.1.dar
then on flower:
dar -c - -R / -z | nc -w 3 honey 5000
but this will produce only one slice, instead you could use the following to have several slices on honey:
nc -l -p 5000 | dar_xform -s 10M -S 5M -p - backup
by the way note that dar_xform can also launch a user script between slices exactly the same way as dar does, thanks to the -E and -F options.
Testing the archive
Testing the archive can be done on honey, but diffing (comparison) implies reading the filesystem, of flower this it must be run there. Both operation as well as archive listing an other read operations can leverage what follows:
nc -l -p 5000 | dar_slave backup | nc -l -p 5001
then on flower:
nc -w 3 honey 5001 | dar -t - | nc -w 3 honey 5000
Note that here too dar_slave can run a script between slices, if for example you need to load slices from a tape robot, this can be done automatically, or if you just want to mount/unmount a removable media eject or load it and ask the user to change it or whatever else is your need.
Comparing with original filesystem
this is very similar to the previous example:
nc -l -p 5000 | dar_slave backup | nc -l -p 5001
while on flower:
nc -w 3 honey 5001 | dar -d - -R / | nc -w 3 honey 5000
Making a differential backup
Here the problem is that dar needs two pipes to send orders and read data coming from dar_slave, and a third pipe to write out the new archive. This cannot be realized only with stdin and stdout as previously. Thus we will need a named pipe (created by the mkfifo command).
On honey in two different terminals:
nc -l -p 5000| dar_slave backup | nc -l -p 5001 nc -l -p 5002| dar_xform -s 10M -p - diff_backup
Then on flower:
nc -w 3 honey 5000 < toslave & nc -w 3 honey 5001| dar -A - -o toslave -c --R / -z | nc -w 3 honey 5002
with netcat the data goes in clear over the network. You could use ssh instead if you want to have encryption over the network. The principle are the same let's see this now:
Creating full backup
we assume you have a sshd daemon on flower. We can then run the following on honey:
ssh flower dar -c - -R / -z > backup.1.dar
Or still on honey:
ssh flower dar -c - -R / -z | dar_xform -s 10M -S 5M -p - backup
Testing the archive
dar -t backup
Comparing with original filesystem
mkfifo todar toslave ssh honey dar_slave backup > todar < toslave & dar -d - -R / -i todar -o toslave
Important: Depending on the shell you use, it may be necessary to invert the order in which "> todar" and "< toslave" are given on command line. The problem is that the shell hangs trying to open the pipes. Thanks to "/PeO" for his feedback.
Or on honey:
mkfifo todar toslave ssh flower dar -d - -R / > toslave < todar & dar_slave -i toslave -o todar backup
Making a differential backup
mkfifo todar toslave ssh honey dar_slave backup > todar < toslave &
and on honey:
ssh flower dar -c - -A - -i todar -o toslave > diff_linux.1.dar
ssh flower dar -c - -A - -i todar -o toslave | dar_xform -s 10M -S 5M -p - diff_linux
Integrated ssh support
Since release 2.6.0, you can use an URL-like archive basename. Assuming you have slices test.1.dar, test.2.dar ... available in the directory Archive of an FTP of SFTP (ssh) server you could read, extract, list, test, ... that archive using the following syntax:
dar -t ftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/Archive/example1 ...other options dar -t sftp//login:email@example.com/where/Archive/example2 ...other options dar -t sftp//sftp.server.some/where/Archive/example2 -afile-auth ...other options
Same thing with -l, -x, -A and -@ options. Note that you still need to provide the archive base name not a slice name as usually done with dar. This option is also compatible with slicing and slice hashing, which will be generated on remote server beside the slices:
dar -c sftp://login:firstname.lastname@example.org/Archive/day2/incremental \ -A ftp://email@example.com/Archive/CAT_test --hash sha512 \ -@ sftp://login2:firstname.lastname@example.org/Archive/day2/CAT_incremental \ <other options>
By default if no password is given, dar asks the user interactively. If
no login is used, dar assumes the login to be "anonymous". When you add
-afile-auth option, in absence of password on command-line, dar
checks for a password in the file ~/.netrc for both FTP and SFTP
protocols to avoid exposing password on command-line while still have
non interactive backup. See man netrc for this common file's syntax.
-afile-auth also activate public key authentication if
all is set for that (~/.ssh/id_rsa ...)
Since release 2.6.0 dar can directly use ftp or sftp to operate remotely. This new feature has sometime some advantage over the methods descibed above with ssh sometimes it has not, the objective here is to clarify the pro and cons of each method.
|Operation||dar + dar_slave/dar_xform through ssh||dar alone||embedded sftp/ftp in dar|
|Underlying mode of operation||direct access mode||sequential read mode||direct access mode|
(should be done locally rather than over network if possible!!!)
(should be done locally rather than over network if possible!!!)
Sorry by advance for the following school-like introduction to size prefix available with dar, but it seems that the metric system is (still) not taught in all countries leading some to ugly/erroneous writings... so let me remind what I've been told at school...
You probably know a bit the metric system, where a dimension is expressed by a base unit (the meter for distance, the liter for volume, the Joule for energy, the Volt for electrical potential, the bar for pressure, the Watt for power, the second for time, etc.), and all eventually declined using prefixes:
prefix (symbol) = ratio ================ deci (d) = 0.1 centi (c) = 0.01 milli (m) = 0.001 micro (μ) = 0.000,001 nano (n) = 0.000,000,001 pico (p) = 0.000,000,000,001 femto (f) = 0.000,000,000,000,001 atto (a) = 0.000,000,000,000,000,001 zepto (z) = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,001 yocto (y) = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 ronto (r) = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 quecto (q) = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 deca (da) = 10 hecto (h) = 100 kilo (k) = 1,000 (yes, this is a lower case letter, not an upper case! Uppercase letter 'K' is the Kelvin: temperature unit) mega (M) = 1,000,000 giga (G) = 1,000,000,000 tera (T) = 1,000,000,000,000 peta (P) = 1,000,000,000,000,000 exa (E) = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 zetta (Z) = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 yotta (Y) = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 ronna (R) = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 quetta (Q) = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
Not all prefix have been introduced at the same time, the oldest (c, d, m, da, h, k) exist since 1795, this explain the fact they are all lowercase and are not all power of 1000. Mega and micro have been added in 1873. The rest is much more recent (1960, 1975, 1991, 2022 according to Wikipedia)
some other rules I had been told at school are:
- the unit follows the number
- a space has to be inserted between the number and the unit
Thus instead of writing "4K hour" the correct writing is "4 kh" for four kilohour
This way two milliseconds (noted "2 ms") are 0.002 second, and 5 kilometers (noted "5 km") are 5,000 meters. All was fine and nice up to the recent time when computer science appeared: In that discipline, the need to measure the size of information storage raised. The smallest size, is the bit (contraction of binary digit), binary because it has two possible states: "0" and "1". Grouping bits by 8 computer scientists called it a byte or also an octet.
A byte having 256 different states (2 power 8) and when the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code arrived to assign a letter or more generally characters to the different values of a byte, ('A' is assigned to 65, space to 32, etc) and as as most text is composed of a set of character, they started to count information size in byte unit. Time after time, following technology evolution, memory size approached 1000 bytes.
But as memory is accessed through a bus which is a fixed number of cables (or integrated circuits), on which only two possible voltages are authorized (to mean 0 or 1), the total amount of byte that a bus can address is always a power of 2 here too. With a two cable bus, you can have 4 values (00, 01, 10 and 11, where a digit is the state of a cable) so you can address 4 bytes.
Giving a value to each cable defines an address to read or write in the memory. So when memory size approached 1000 bytes they could address 1024 bytes (2 power 10) and it was decided that a "kilobyte" would be that: 1024 bytes. Some time after, and by extension, a megabyte has been defined to be 1024 kilobytes, a gigabyte to be 1024 megabytes, etc. at the exception of the 1.44 MB floppy where here the capacity is 1440 kilobytes thus here "mega" means 1000 kilo...
In parallel, in the telecommunications domain, going from analogical to digital signal made the bit to be used also. In place of the analogical signal, took place a flow of bits, representing the samples of the original signal. For telecommunications the problem was more a problem of size of flow: how much bit could be transmitted by second. At some ancient time appeared the 1200 bit by second, then 64000, also designed as 64 kbit/s. Thus here, kilo stays in the usual meaning of 1000 time the base unit. You can also find Ethernet 10 Mbit/s which is 10,000,000 and still today the latest 400 Gbit/s ethernet is 400,000,000,000 bits/s. Same thing with Token-Ring that had rates at 4, 16 or 100 Mbit/s (4,000,000 16,000,000 or 100,000,000 bits/s). But, even for telecommunications, kilo is not always 1000 times the base unit: the E1 bandwidth at 2Mbit/s for example, is in fact 32*64kbit/s thus 2048 kbit/s ... not 2000 kbit/s
Anyway, back to dar and present time, you have to possibility to use the SI unit prefixes (k, M, T, P, E, Z, Y, R, Q) as number suffixes, like 10k for number 10,000 which, if convenient, is not correct regarding SI system rules but so frequently used today, that my now old school teachers would probably not complain too loudly ;^)
In this suffix notation the base unit is implicitely the byte, giving thus the possibility to provide sizes in kilo, mega, tera, peta, exa, zetta, yotta, ronna or quetta byte, using by default the computer science definition of these terms: a power of 1024, which today corresponds to the kiB, MiB... unit symbols.
These suffixes are for simplicity and to not have to compute how much make powers of 1024. For example, if you want to fill a CD-R you will have to use the "-s 650M" option which is equivalent to "-s 6815744400", choose the one you prefer, the result is the same :-).
Now, if you want 2 Megabytes slices in the sense of the metric system,
simply use "-s 2000000" but since version 2.2.0, you can alter the meaning
of all these suffixes using the following
(which can be shorten to
-aSI -s 2k
Yes, and to make things more confused, marketing/sales arrived and made sellers count gigabits a third way: I remember some time ago, I bought a hard disk which was described as "2.1 GB", (OK, that's now long ago! ~ year 2000), but in fact it had only 2097152 bytes available. This is much below 2202009 bytes (= 2.1 GiB for computer science meaning), while a bit more than 2,000,000 bytes (metric system). OK, if it had these 2202009 bytes (computer science meaning of 2.1 GB), would this hard disk have been sold under the label "2.3 GB"!? ... just kidding :-)
Note that to distinguish kilo, mega, tera and so on, new abbreviations are officially defined, but are not used within dar:
ki = 1024 Mi = 1024*1024 Gi = and so on... Ti Pi Ei Zi Yi Ri Qi
For example, we have 1 kiB for 1 kilobytes (= 1024 bytes), and 1 kibit for 1 kilobits (= 1024 bits) and 1 kB (= 1000 Bytes) and 1 kbit (= 1000 bits)...
DAR can be run in background this way:
dar [command-line arguments] < /dev/null &
dar suite programs may use several type of files:
- slices (dar, dar_xform, dar_slave, dar_manager)
- configuration files (dar, dar_xform, dar_slave)
- databases (dar_manager)
- user commands for slices (dar, dar_xform, dar_slave, using -E, -F or -~ options)
- user commands for files (dar only, during the backup process using -= option)
- filter lists (dar's -[ and -] options)
If for slice the extension and even the filename format cannot be customized, (basename.slicenumber.dar) there is not mandatory rule for the other type of files.
In the case you have no idea on how to name these, here is the extensions I use:
- "*.dcf": Dar Configuration file, aka DCF files (used with dar's -B option)
- "*.dmd": Dar Manager Database, aka DMD files (used with dar_manager's -B and -C options)
- "*.duc": Dar User Command, aka DUC files (used with dar's -E, -F, -~ options)
- "*.dbp": Dar Backup Preparation, aka DBP files (used with dar's -= option)
- "*.dfl": Dar Filter List, aka DFL files (used with dar's -[ or -] options)
but, you are totally free to use the filename you want! ;-)
You can run command from dar at two different places:
- when dar has finished writing a slice only in backup, isolation or merging modes, or before dar needs a slice (DUC files), in reading mode (testing, diffing, extracting, ...) and when reading an archive of reference.
- before and after saving a given file during the backup process (DBP files)
This concerns -E, -F and -~ options. They all receive a string as
argument. Thus, if the argument must be a command with its own
arguments, you have to put these between quotes for they appear as a
single string to the shell that interprets the dar command-line. For
example if you want to call
you have to use the following on DAR command-line:
-E "df ."
-E 'df .'
DAR provides several substitution strings in that context:
%%is replaced by a single
%Thus if you need a
%in you command line you MUST replace it by
%%in the argument string of -E, -F or -~ options.
%pis replaced by the path to the slices
%bis replaced by the basename of the slices
%nis replaced by the number of the slice
%Nis replaced by the number of the slice with padded zeros (it may differ from
%nonly when --min-digits option is used)
%cis replaced by the context which is either "operation", "init" or "last_slice" which values are explained below
The number of the slice (
is either the just written slice or the next slice to be read. For
example if you create an new archive (either using -c, -C or -+), in -E
%n macro is the number of the last
slice completed. Else (using -t, -d, -A (with -c or -C), -l or -x),
this is the number of the slice that will be required very soon. While
%c (the context) is substituted by "init", "operation" or "last_slice"
in the following conditions:
- init: when the slice is asked before the catalogue is read
- operation: once the catalogue is read and/or data treatment has begun.
- last_slice: when the last slice has been written (archive creation only)
What the use of this feature? For example you want to burn the brand-new slices on CD as soon as they are available.
let's build a little script for that:
%cat burner #!/bin/bash if [ "$1" == "" -o "$2" == "" ] ; then echo "usage: $0 <filename> <number>" exit 1 fi mkdir T mv $1 T mkisofs -o /tmp/image.iso -r -J -V "archive_$2" T cdrecord dev=0,0 speed=8 -data /tmp/image.iso rm /tmp/image.iso # Now assuming an automount will mount the just newly burnt CD: if diff /mnt/cdrom/$1 T/$1 ; then rm -rf T else exit 2 endif %
This little script, receive the slice filename, and its number as argument, what it does is to burn a CD with it, and compare the resulting CD with the original slice. Upon failure, the script return 2 (or 1 if syntax is not correct on the command-line). Note that this script is only here for illustration, there are many more interesting user scripts made by several dar users. These are available in the examples part of the documentation.
One could then use it this way:
-E "./burner %p/%b.%n.dar %n"
which can lead to the following DAR command-line:
dar -c ~/tmp/example -z -R / usr/local -s 650M -E "./burner %p/%b.%n.dar %n" -p
First, note that as our script does not change CD from the device, we need to pause between slices (-p option). The pause take place after the execution of the command (-E option). Thus we could add in the script a command to send a mail or play a music to inform us that the slice is burned. The advantage, here is that we don't have to come twice by slices, once the slice is ready, and once the slice is burnt.
you want to send a huge file by email. (OK that's better to use FTP, SFTP,... but let's assume we have to workaround a server failure, or an absence of such service). So let's suppose that you only have mail available to transfer your data:
dar -c toto -s 2M my_huge_file \ -E "uuencode %b.%n.dar %b.%n.dar | mail -s 'slice %n' email@example.com ; rm %b.%n.dar ; sleep 300"
Here we make an archive with slices of 2 Megabytes, because our mail system does not allow larger emails. We save only one file: "my_huge_file" (but we could even save the whole filesystem it would also work). The command we execute each time a slice is ready is:
- uuencode the file and send the output my email to our address.
- remove the slice
- wait 5 minutes, to no overload too much the mail system, This is also
- useful, if you have a small mailbox, from which it takes time to retrieve mail.
Note that we did not used the
substitution string, as the slices are saved in the current directory.
Last example, is while extracting: in the case the slices cannot all be present in the filesystem, you need a script or a command to fetch the next to be requested slice. It could be using ftp, lynx, ssh, etc. I let you do the script as an exercise. :-). Note, if you plan to share your DUC files, thanks to use the convention fo DUC files.
This concerns the -=, -< and -> options. The -< (include) and -> (exclude) options, let you define which file will need a command to be run before and after their backup. While the -= option, let you define which command to run for those files.
Let's suppose you have a very large file changing often that is located
/home/my/big/file, an a running software modifies
several files under
/home/*/data that need to have a
coherent status and are also changing very often.
Saving them without precaution, will most probably make your big file flagged as "dirty" in dar's archive, which means that the saved status of the file may be a status that never existed for that file: when dar saves a file it reads the first byte, then the second, etc. up to the end of file. While dar is reading the middle of the file, an application may change the very begin and then the very end of that file, but only modified ending of that file will be saved, leading the archive to contain a copy of the file in a state it never had.
For a set of different files that need coherent status this is even worse, if dar saves one first file while another file is modified at the same time, this will not lead having the currently saved files flagged as "dirty", but may lead the software relying on this set of files to fail when restoring its files because of the incoherent states between them.
For that situation not to occur, we will use the following options:
-R / "-<" home/my/big/file "-<" "home/*/data"
First, you must pay attention to quote around the -< and -> options for the shell not to consider you ask for redirection to stdout or from stdin.
Back to the example, that says that for the files
and for any
"/home/*/data" directory (or file),
a command will be run before and after saving that directory of file.
We need thus to define such command to run using the following option:
-= "/root/scripts/before_after_backup.sh %f %p %c"
Well as you see, here too we may (and should) use substitutions macro:
%%is replaced by a litteral
%pis replaced by the full path (including filename) of the file/directory to be saved
%fis replaced by the filename (without path) of the file/directory to be saved
%uis the uid of the file's owner
%his the gid of the file's owner
%cis replaced by the context, which is either "start" or "end" depending on whether the file/directory is about to be saved or has been completely saved.
And our script here could look like this:
%cat /root/scripts/before_after_backup.sh #!/bin/sh if [ "$1" == "" ]; then echo "usage: $0 <filename> <dir+filename> <context>" exit 1 fi # for better readability: filename="$1" path_file="$2" context="$3" if [ "$filename" = "data" ] ; then if ["$context" = "start" ] ; then # action to suspend the software using files located in "$2" else # action to resume the software using files located in "$2" fi else if ["$path_file" = "/home/my/big/file" ] ; then if ["$context" = "start" ] ; then # suspend the application that writes to that file else # resume the application that writes to that file fi else # do nothing, or warn that no action is defined for that file fi fi
So now, if we run dar with all these command, dar will execute
our script once before entering the
directory located in a home directory of some user, and once all files
of that directory will have been saved. It will run our script also
before and after saving our
If you plan to share your DBP files, thanks to use the DBP convention.
Since version 1.2.0 dar's user can have dar calling a command or scripts (called DUC files) between slices, thanks to the -E, -F and -~ options. To be able to easily share your DUC commands or scripts, I propose you the following convention:
use the ".duc" extension to show anyone the script/command respect the following
must be called from dar with the following arguments:
example.duc %p %b %n %e %c [other optional arguments]
When called without argument, it must provide brief help on what it does and what are the expected arguments. This is the standard "usage:" convention.
Then, any user, could share their DUC files and don't bother much about how to use them. Moreover it would be easy to chain them, if for example two persons created their own script, one
burn.ducwhich burns a slice onDVD-R(W) and
par.ducwhich makes a Parchive redundancy file from a slice, anybody could use both at a time giving the following argument to dar:
-E "par.duc %p %b %n %e %c 1" -E "burn.duc %p %b %n %e %c"
of course a script has not to use all its arguments, in the case of
burn.ducfor example, the
%c(context) is probably useless, and would not be used inside the script, while it is still possible to give it all the "normal" arguments of a DUC file, those not used simply being ignored.
If you have interesting DUC scripts, you are welcome to contact dar maintainer (and not the maintainer of particular distro) by email, for it be add on the web site and in the following releases For now, check doc/samples directory for a few examples of DUC files.
Note that all DUC scripts are expected to return a exit status of zero meaning that the operation has succeeded. If another exit status has been returned, dar asks the user for decision (or aborts if no user has been identified, for example, dar is not ran under a controlling terminal).
Same as above, the following convention is proposed to ease the sharing of Dar Backup Preparation files:
use the ".dbp" extension to show anyone the script/command respect the following
must be called from dar with the following arguments:
example.dbp %p %f %u %g %c [other optional arguments]
when called without argument, it must provide brief help on what it does and what are the expected arguments. This is the standard "usage:" convention.
Identically to DUC files, DBP files are expected to return a exist status of zero, else the backup process is suspended for the user to decide wether to retry, ignore the failure or abort the whole backup process.
Since release 2.4.0, a DCF file (files given to -B option) can contain user targets. A user target is an extention of the conditional syntax. So we will first make a brief review on conditional syntax:
Conditional syntax in DCF files
The conditional syntax gives the possiblility to have options in a DCF file that are only active in a certain context:
- archive extraction (
- archive creation (
- archive listing (
- archive testing (
- archive comparison (
- archive isolation (
- archive merging (
- no action yet defined (
- all context (
- when a archive of reference is used (
- when an auxilliary archive of reference is used (
All option given after the keyword in parenthesis up to the next user target or the end of the file, take effect only in the corresponding context. An example should clarify this:
%cat sample.dcf # this is a comment all: --min-digits 3 extract: -R / reference: -J aes: auxilliary: -~ aes: create: -K aes: -ac -Z "*.mp3" -Z "*.avi" -zlz4 isolate: -K aes: -zlzo default: -V
This way, the -Z options are only used when creating an archive, while the --min-digits option is used in any case. Well, this ends the review of the conditional syntax.
As stated previously, user targets feature extends the conditional syntax we just reviewed above. This means new and user defined "targets" can be added. The option that follow them will be activated only if the keyword of the target is passed on command-line or in a DCF file. Let's take an example:
% cat my_dcf_file.dcf
In the default situation all that
follows the line
"compress:" up to the next target
or as here up to the end of the file will be ignored
compress keyword is passed on command-line:
dar -c test -B sample.dcf
Which will do exactly the same as if you have typed:
dar -c test -z lzo:5
Of course, you can use as many user target as you wish in your files, the only constraint is that it must not have the name of the reserved keyword of a conditional syntax, but you can also mix conditional syntax and user targets. Here follows a last example:
% cat sample.dcf # this is a comment all: --min-digits 3 extract: -R / reference: -J aes: auxilliary: -~ aes: create: -K aes: -ac -Z "*.mp3" -Z "*.avi" default: -V # our first user target named "compress": compress: -z lzo:5 # a second user target named "verbose": verbose: -v -vs # a third user target named "ring": ring: -b # a last user target named "hash": hash: --hash sha1
You can now use dar and activate a set of commands by simply adding the name of the target on command-line:
dar -c test -B sample.dcf
compress ring verbose hash
which is equivalent to:
dar -c test --min-digits 3 -K aes: -ac -Z "*.mp3" -Z "*.avi" -z lzo:5 -v -vs -b --hash sha1
Last for those that like complicated things, you can recusively use DCF inside user targets, which may contain conditional syntax and the same or some other user targets of you own.
Parchive (par or par2 in the following) is a very nice program that makes possible to recover a file which has been corrupted. It creates redundancy data stored in a separated file (or set of files), which can be used to repair the original file. This additional data may also be damaged, par will be able to repair the original file as well as the redundancy files, up to a certain point, of course. This point is defined by the percentage of redundancy you defined for a given file. The par reference sites are:
- http://parchive.sourceforge.net (original site no more maintained today)
- https://github.com/Parchive/par2cmdline (fork from the official site maintained since decembre 2013)
Since version 2.4.0, dar is provided with a default /etc/darrc file. This one
contains a set of user targets among which is
dar_par.dcf file provided with dar that automatically
creates parity file for each slice during backup. When testing an archive it
verifies parity data with the archive, and if necessary repaires slices.
So now you only need install par2 and use dar this way to activate Parchive
integration with dar:
File filtering is what defines which files are saved, listed, restored, compared, tested, considered for merging... In brief, in the following we will speak of which file are elected for the "operation", either a backup, a restoration, an archive contents listing, an archive comparison, etc.
On dar command-line, file filtering is done using the following options -X, -I, -P, -R, -[, -], -g, --filter-by-ea or --nodump. You have of course all these option using the libdar API.
OK, Let's start with some concretes examples:
dar -c toto
this will backup the current directory and all what is located into it to build the toto archive, also located in the current directory. Usually you should get a warning telling you that you are about to backup the archive itself
Now let's see something more interesting:
dar -c toto -R / -g home/ftp
the -R option tell dar to consider all file under the / root directory,
argument tells dar to restrict the operation only on the
home/ftp subdirectory of the given
root directory, which here is
But this is a little bit different from the following:
dar -c toto -R /home/ftp
here dar will save any file under /home/ftp without any restriction. So
what is the difference with the previous form? Both will save just the
same files, right, but the file
for example, will be stored as
in the first example while it will be saved as
<ROOT>/welcome.msg in the second example.
<ROOT> is a symbolic representation of the
filesystem root, which at restoration or comparison time it will be substitued
by the argument given to -R option (which defaults to "."). Let's
continue with other filtering mechanism:
dar -c toto -R / -g home/ftp -P home/ftp/pub
Same as previously, but the
-P option leads all files
not to be considered for the operation. If
-P option is
-g option all files under the -R root directory
except the one pointed to by
-P options (can be used several time)
dar -c toto -R / -P etc/password -g etc
here we save all the
/etc except the
/etc/password file. Arguments
given to -P can be plain files also. But when they are directory this
exclusion applies to the directory itself and its contents. Note that
using -X to exclude "password" does have the same effect:
dar -c toto -R / -X "password" -g etc
will save all the
/etc directory except any file with name equal to
"password". thus of course
/etc/password will no be saved, but if it
/etc/rc.d/password will not be saved neither if it is not a
directory. Yes, if a directory
/etc/rc.d/password exist, it will not be
affected by the -X option. As well as -I option, -X option do not apply
to directories. The reason is to be able to filter some file by type (file extension for
example) without excluding a particular directory. For example you want to save
all mp3 files and only MP3 files:
dar -c toto -R / --alter=no-case -I "*.mp3" home/ftp
will save any ending by mp3 or MP3 (
--alter=no-case modify the
default behavior and make the mask following it case insensitive, use
--alter=case to revert to the default behavior for the following
masks). The backup is restricted to
and subdirectories. If instead -I (or -X) applied to directories, we
would only be able to recurse in subdirectories ending by ".mp3" or
".MP3". If you had a directory named "/home/ftp/Music" for example,
full of mp3, you would not have been able to save it.
Note that the glob expressions (where comes the shell-like wild-card '*' '?' and so on), can do much more complicated things like "*.[mM][pP]3". You could thus replace the previous example by the following for the same result:
dar -c toto -R / -I "*.[mM][pP]3" home/ftp
And, instead of using glob expression, you can
use regular expressions (regex) using the
option. You can also use alternatively both of them using
to return back to glob expressions. Each option
-aglob modifies the filter option that follow
them on command-line or -B included files. This affects
-I/-X/-P options for file filtering as well as
for Extended Attributes filtering as well as
-Z/-Y options for
file selected for compression.
Now the inside algorithm, to understand how -X/-I on one side and -P/-g/-[/-] options act relative to each others: a file is elected for operation if:
- its name does not match any -X option or it is a directory
- and if some -I is given, file is either a directory or match at least one of the -I option given.
- and path and filename do not match any -P option
- and if some -g options are given, the path to the file matches at least one of the -g options.
The algorithm we detailed above is the default one, which is historical
and called the unordered method. But since version 2.2.x
there is also an more poweful ordered method (activated adding
-am option) which gives even more freedom to filters,
the dar man mage will give you all
the details, but in short it leads the a mask to take precendence
on the one found before it on the command-line:
dar -c toto -R /
-am-P home -g home/denis -P home/denis/.ssh
will save everything except what's in
/home/denis will derogate and will be saved except
for what's in
/home/denis/.ssh. -X and -I acts also
similarly between them when
-am is used the latest
filter met takes precedence (but -P/-g do not interfer with -X/-I).
To summarize, in parallel of file filtering, you will find Extended Attributes
filtering thanks to the
-u and -U options
(they work the same as -X and -I option but apply to EA),
you will also find the file compression
filtering (-Z and -Y options) that defines which file to compress or to
not compress, here too the way they work is the same as seen with -X
and -I options. The
options do also apply to all, as well as the
Last all these filtering (file, EA, compression) can also use
regular expression in place of glob expression (thanks to the
Well, you have already heard about "Full" backup, in which all files are completely saved in such a way that let you use this backup alone to completely restore your data. You have also probably heard about "differential" backup in which is only stored the changes that occurred since an archive of reference was made. There is also the "incremental" backup, which in substance, is the same as "differential" ones. The difference resides in the nature of the archive of reference: "Differential" backup use only a "full" backup as reference, while "incremental" may use a "full" backup, a "differential" backup or another "incremental" backup as reference (Well, in dar's documentation the term "differential" is commonly used in place of "incremental", since there is no conceptual difference from the point of view of dar software).
let's now see a new type of backup: the "decremental" backup. All started by a feature request from Yuraukar on dar-support mailing-list:
- In the full/differential backup scheme, for a given file, you have as many versions as changes that were detected from backup to backup. That's fair in terms of storage space required, as you do not store twice the same file in the same state, which you would do if you were doing only full backups. But the drawback is that you do not know by advance in which backup to find the latest version of a given file. Another drawback comes when you want to restore your entire system to the latest state available from your backup set, you need to restore the most ancient backup (the latest full backup), then the others one by one in chronological order (the incremental/differential backups). This may take some time, yes. This is moreover inefficient, because, you will restore N old revisions of a file that have changed often before restoring the last and more recent version.
Yuraukar idea was to have all latest versions of files in the latest backup done. Thus the most recent archive would always stay a full backup. But, to still be able to restore a file in an older state than the most recent (in case of accidental suppression), we need a so called decremental backup. This backup's archive of reference is in the future (a more recent decremental backup or the latest backup done, which is a full backup in this scheme). This so called "decremental" backup stores all the file differences from this archive of reference that let you get from the reference state to an older state.
Assuming this is most probable to restore the latest version of a filesystem than any older state available, decremental backup seem an interesting alternative to incremental backups, as in that case you only have to use one archive (the latest) and each file get restored only once (old data do not get overwritten at each archive restoration as it is the case with incremental restoration).
Let's take an example: We have 4 files in the system named f1, f2, f3 and f4. We make backups at four different times t1, t2, t3 and t4 in chronological order. We will also perform some changes in filesystem along this period: f1 has will be removed from the system between t3 and t4, while f4 will only appear between t3 and t4. f2 will be modified between t2 and t3 while f3 will be changed between t3 and t4.
All this can be represented this way, where lines are the state at a given date while each column represents a given file.
time ^ | * represents the version 1 of a file t4 + # # * # represents the version 2 of a file | t3 + * # * | t2 + * * * | t1 + * * * | +----+----+----+----+--- f1 f2 f3 f4
Now we will represent the contents of backups at these different
times, first using only full backup, then using incremental backups and
at last using decremental backups. We will use the symbol
'O' in place
of data if a given file's data is not stored in the archive because it
has not changed since the archive of reference was made. We will also
'x' to represent the information that a given file has been
recorded in an archive as deleted since the archive of reference was made. This
information is used at restoration time to remove a file from
filesystem to be able to get the exact state of files seen at the date
the backup was made.
Full backups behavior
^ | t4 + # # * | t3 + * # * | t2 + * * * | t1 + * * * | +----+----+----+----+--- f1 f2 f3 f4
Yes, this is easy, each backup contains all the files that existed at the time the backup was made. To restore in the state the system had at a given date, we only use one backup, which is the one that best corresponds to the date we want. The drawback is that we saved three time the file f1 an f3 version 1, and twice f2 version 2, which correspond to a waste of storage space.
Full/Incremental backups behavior
^ | t4 + x 0 # * 0 represents a file which only state is recorded | as such, no data is stored in the archive t3 + 0 # 0 very little space is consummed by such entry | t2 + 0 0 0 x represents an entry telling that the corresponding | file has to be removed t1 + * * * | +----+----+----+----+--- f1 f2 f3 f4
Now we see that archive done at date 't2' does not contain any data as no changed have been detected between t1 and t2. This backup is quite small and needs only little storage. Archive at t3 date only stores f2's new version, and at t4 the archive stores f4 new file and f3's new version. We also see that f1 is marked as removed from filesystem since date t3 as it no longer existing in filesystem but existed in the archive of reference done at t3.
As you see, restoring to the latest state is more complicated compared to only using full backups, it is neither simple to know in which backup to took for a given file's data at date t3 for example, but yes, we do not waste storage space anymore. The restoration process the user has to follow is to restore in turn:
- archive done at t1, which will put old version of files and restore f1 that have been removed at t4
- archive done at t2, that will do nothing at all
- archive done at t3, that will replace f2's old version by its new one
- archive done at t4, that will remove f1, add f4 and replace f3's old version to by its latest version.
The latest version of files is scattered over the two last archives here, but in common systems, much of the data does not change at all and can only be found in the first backup (the full backup).
Decremental backup behavior
Here is represented the contents of backups using decremental approach. The most recent (t4) backup is always a full backup. Older backups are decremental backups based on the just more recent one (t3 is a difference based on t4, t1 is a difference based on t2). At the opposit of incremental backups, the reference of the archive is in the future not in the past.
^ | t4 + # # * | t3 + * 0 * x | t2 + 0 * 0 | t1 + 0 0 0 | +----+----+----+----+--- f1 f2 f3 f4
Thus obtaining the latest version of the system is as easy as done using only full backups. And you also see that the space required to store these decremental backup is equivalent to what is needed to store the incremental backups. However, still the problem exist to locate the archive in which to find a given's file data at a given date. But also, you may see that backup done at time t1 can safely be removed as it became useless because it does not store any data, and loosing archive done at t1 and t2 is not a big problem, you just loose old state data.
Now if we want to restore the filesystem in the state it has at time t3, we have to restore archive done at t4 then restore archive done at t3. This last step will have the consequences to create f1, replace f3 by its older version and delete f4 which did not exist at time t3 (file which is maked 'x' meaning that it has to be removed). if we want to go further in the past, we will restore the decremental backup t2 which will only replace f2's new version by the older version 1. Last restoring t1 will have no effect as no changed were made between t1 and t2.
What about dar_manager? Well, in nature, there is no difference between an decremental backup and a differential/incremental backup. The only difference resided in the way (the order) they have to be used. So, even if you can add decremental backups in a dar_manager database, it is not designed to handle them correctly. It is thus better to keep dar_manager only for incremental/differential/full backups.
Decremental backup theory
But how to get built decremental backup as the reference is in the future and does not exist yet?
Assuming you have a full backup describing your system at date t1, can we have in one shot both the new full backup for time t2 and also transform the full backup of time t1 into a decremental backup relative to time t2? In theory, yes. But there is a risk in case of failure (filesystem full, lack of electric power, bug, ...): you may loose both backups, the one which was under construction as well as the one we took as reference and which was under process of transformaton to decremental backup.
Seen this, the libdar implementation is to let
the user do a normal full backup at each step [Doing just a
differential backup sounds better at first, but this would end in more
archive manipulation, as we would have to generate both decremental and
new full backup, and we would manipulate at least the same amount of
data]. Then with the two full backups the user would have to use
archive merging to create the decremental backup
-ad option. Last, once the resulting
(decremental) archive have been tested and that the user is sure this
decremental backup is viable, he can remove the older full backup
and store the new decremental backup beside older ones and
the new full backup. This at last only, will save you disk space
and let you easily recover you system using the latest (full) backup.
Can one use an extracted catalogue instead of the old full backup to perform a decremental backup? No. The full backup to transform must have the whole data in it to be able to create a decremental back with data in it. Only the new full backup can be replaced by its extracted catalogue.
This last part about decremental backup is extracted from a discussion with Dan Masson on dar-support mailing-list:
Decremental backup practice
We start by a full backup:
dar -c /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-10 -R / -z -g /mnt/backup -D
Then at each new cycle, we a new full backup
dar -c /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-11 -R / -z -g /mnt/backup -D
Then to save space, we reduce into a decremental backup the previous full backup:
-+ /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-10-A /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-10 -@ /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-11 -ad-ak
By precaution test that the decremental archive is viable
dar -t /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-10
Then make space by removing the old full backup:
And you can loop this way forever, removing at at time the very oldest decremental backups if space is missing.
Assuming you run this cycle each day, you get the following at each new step/day:
The 2015-04-10 you have: FULL-2015-04-10 The 2015-04-11 you have: FULL-2015-04-11 DECR-2015-04-10 The 2015-04-12 you have: FULL-2015-04-12 DECR-2015-04-11 DECR-2015-04-10 The 2015-04-13 you have: FULL-2015-04-13 DECR-2015-04-12 DECR-2015-04-11 DECR-2015-04-10
and so on.
Restoration using decremental backup
Scenario 1: today 2015-04-17 you have lost your system, you want to restore it as it was at the time of the last backup. Solution:: use the last backup it is a full one, it is the latest backup, nothing more!
dar -x /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-16 -R /
Scenario 2: today 2015-04-17 you have lost your system due to a virus or your system had been compromised and you know it started the 2015-04-12 so you want to restore your system at the time of 2015-04-11. First, restore the last full archive (FULL-2015-04-16) then in reverse order all the decremental ones: DECR-2015-04-15 then DECR-2015-04-14, then DECR-2015-04-13, then DECR-2015-04-12 then DECR-2015-04-11. The decremental backup are small, their restoration is usually quick (depending on how much files changed in the day). So here we get in the exact same situation you would have reach restoring only FULL-2015-04-11, but you did not not have to store all the full backups, just the latest.
dar -x /mnt/backup/FULL-2015-04-16 -R / dar -x /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-15 -R / -w dar -x /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-14 -R / -w dar -x /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-13 -R / -w dar -x /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-12 -R / -w dar -x /mnt/backup/DECR-2015-04-11 -R / -w
A door inode is a dynamic object that is created on top of an empty file, it does exist only when a process has a reference to it, it is thus not possible to restore it. But the empty file it is mounted on can be restored instead. As such, dar restores an door inode with an empty file having the same parameters as the door inode.
If an door inode is hard linked several times in the file system dar will restore a plain file having as much hard links to the corresponding locations.
Dar is also able to handle Extended Attributes associated to a door file, if any. Last, if you list an archive containing door inodes, you will see the 'D' letter as their type (by opposition to 'd' for directories), this is conform to what the 'ls' command displays for such entries.
delta compression, binary diff or rsync increment all point to the same feature: a way to avoid resaving a whole file during a differential/incremental backup but only save the modified part of it instead. This solution is of course interesting for large files that change often but only for little parts of them (Microsoft exchange mailboxes, for example). Dar implements this feature relying on librsync library, feature which we will call binary delta in the following.
Librsync specific concepts
Before looking at the way to use dar, several concepts from librsync have to be understood:
In order to make a binary delta
of a file
foo which at time t1 contained data F1 and at
time t2 containted data F2, librsync requires first that a
delta signature be made against F1.
Then using that delta signature and data F2, librsync is able to build a delta patch P1 that, if applied to F1 will provide content F2:
backing up file "foo" | V time t1 content = F1 ---------> delta signature of F1 | | | | | +-------------> ) building delta patch "P1" V )----> containing the difference time t2 content = F2 ----------------------------> ) from F1 to F2 | ...
At restoration time dar has then first to restore F1, from a full backup or from a previous differential backup, then using librsync applying the patch "P1" to modify F1 into F2.
restoring file "foo" | V time t3 content = F1 <--- from a previous backup | +------>--------------->----------------+ . | . V . + <----- applying patch "P1" . | +-----<---------------<-------------<---+ | V time t4 content = F2
Using binary delta with dar
First, delta signature is not activated by default, you have to tell dar you want to generate delta signature using the --delta sig option at archive creation/isolation/merging time. Then as soon as a file has a delta signature in the archive of reference, dar will perform a delta binary and store a delta patch if such file has changed since the archive of reference was done. But better an example than a long explanation:
Making differential backup
First, doing a full backup, we add the --delta sig option for the resulting archive to contain the necessary signatures to be provided to librsync later on in order to setup delta patches. This has the drawback of additional space requirement but the advantage of space economy at incremental/differential backups:
dar -c full -R / -z
--delta sig...other options...
Then there is nothing more specific to delta signature, this is the same way as you were used to do with previous releases of dar: you just need to rely on a archive of reference containing delta signatures for dar activating delta binary. Here below, diff1 archive will eventually contain delta patches of modified files since full archive was created, but will not contain any delta signature.
dar -c diff1 -A full -R / -z ...other options...
The next differential backups will be done the same, based on the full backup:
dar -c diff
2-A full -R / -z ...other options...
Looking at archive content, you will see the "[Delta]" flag in place of the "[Saved]" flag for files that have been saved as a delta patch:
[Data ][D][ EA ][FSA][Compr][S]| Permission | User | Group | Size | Date | filename
[Delta][ ] [-L-][ 99%][X] -rwxr-xr-x 1000 1000 919 kio Tue Mar 22 20:22:34 2016 bash
Making incremental backup
Doing incremental backups, the first one is always a full backup and is done the same as above for differential backup:
dar -c full -R / -z
--delta sig...other options...
But at the opposit of differential backups, incremental backups are also used as reference for the next backup. Thus if you want to continue performing binary delta, some delta signatures must be present beside the delta patch in the resulting archives:
dar -c incr1 -A full -R / -z
--delta sig...other options...
Here the --delta sig switch leads dar to copy from the full backup into the new backup all the delta signatures of unchanged files and to recompute new delta signature of files that have changed, in addition to the delta patch calculation that are done with or without this option.
Making isolated catalogue
Delta binary still allows differential or incremental backup using a isolated catalogue in place of the original backup of reference. The point to take care about if you want to perform binary delta is the way to build this isolated catalogue: the delta signature present in the backup of reference files must be copied to the isolated catalogue, else the differential or incremental backup will be a normal one (= without binary delta):
dar -C CAT_full -A full -z
--delta sig...other options...
Note that if the archive of reference does not hold any delta signature, the previous command will lead dar to compute on-fly delta signature of saved files while performing catalogue isolation. You can thus chose not to include delta signature inside full backup while still being able to let dar use binary delta. However as dar cannot compute delta signature without data, files that have been recorded as unchanged since the archive of reference was made cannot have their delta signature computed at isolation time. Same point if a file is stored as a delta patch without delta signature associated with it, dar will not be able to add a delta signature at isolation time for that file.
Yes, this is as simple as adding --delta sig to what you were used to do before. The resulting isolated catalogue will be much larger than without delta signatures but still much smaller than the full backup itself. The incremental or differential backup can then be done the same as before but using CAT_full in place of full:
dar -c diff1 -A CAT_full -R / -z ...other options...
dar -c incr1 -A CAT_full -R / -z
--delta sig...other options...
You may need to merge two backups or make a subset of a single
backup or even a mix of these two operations, possibility which
is brought by the
--merge option for a long
time now. Here too if you want to keep the delta signatures
that could be present in the source archives you will have to use
--delta sig option:
dar --merge merged_backup -A archive1 -@archive2 -z
--delta sig...other options...
Restoring with binary delta
No special option has to be provided at restoration time. Dar will figure out by itself whether the data stored in backup for a file is a plain data and can restore the whole file or is a delta patch that has to be applied to the existing file lying on filesystem. Before patching the file dar will calculate and check its CRC. if the CRC is the expected one, the file will be patched else a warning will be issued and the file will not be modified at all.
The point with restoration is to *always* restore all previous backups in order, from the full backup down to all incremental one (or the full backup and just the latest differential one), for dar be able to apply the stored patches. Else restoration can fail for some or all files. Dar_manager can be of great help here as it will know which archive to skip and which not to skip in order to restore a particular set of files. But for a restoration a whole filesystem it is advised to just use dar and restore backup in order.
Performing binary delta only for some files
You can exclude some files from delta difference operation by avoiding creating a delta signature for them in the archive of reference, using the option --exclude-delta-sig. You can also include only some files for delta signatures using the --include-delta-sig option. Of course as with other masks-related options like -I, -X, -U, -u, -Z, -Y, ... it is possible to combine them to have an even greater and more accurate definition of files for which you want to have delta signature being built
dar -c full -R / -z --delta sig \ --include-delta-sig "*.opt" \ --include-delta-sig "*.pst" \ --exclude-delta-sig "home/joe/*"
Independently from this filtering mechanism based on path+filename, delta signature is never calculated for files smaller than 10 kio because it does not worse performing delta difference for them. You can change that behavior using the option --delta-sig-min-size <size in byte>
dar -c full -R / -z --delta sig --delta-sig-min-size 20k
Archive listing received adhoc addition to show which file have delta signature
and which one have been saved as delta patch. The
[Data ] column shows
[Delta] in place of
when a delta patch is used, and a new column entitled
[D] when a delta signature is present for that file and
[ ] else (or
[-] if delta signature is not applicable to
that type of file).
See man page about --delta related options for even more details.
Differences between rsync and dar
rsync uses binary delta to reduce the volume of data over the network to synchronize a directory between two different hosts. The resulting data is stored uncompressed but thus ready for use
dar uses binary delta to reduce the volume of data to store (and thus transfer over the network) when performing a differential or incremental backup. At the opposite of rsync the data stays compressed and it thus not ready for use (backup/archiving context), and the binary delta can be used incrementally to record a long history of modification, while rsync looses past modifications at each new remote synchronization
In conclusion rsync and dar to not address the same purposes. For more about that topic check the benchmark
As described in the usage notes it is possible to encrypt an archive and have it readable by several recipients using their respective gnupg private key. So far, so good!
It is also possible to embed your gnupg signature within such archive for your recipient to have a proof the archive comes from you. If there is only a single recipient, So far, still so good!
But when an archive is encrypted using gpg to different recipient and is also signed, there is a known weakness. If one of the recipient is an expert he/she could reuse your signature for a slightly different archive
Well, if this type of attack should be accessible by an expert guy with some constraints, it can only take place between a set of friends or at least people that know each other enough to have exchanged their public key information between them.
In that context, if you do think the risk is more than theorical and the consequences of such exploit would be important, it is advised to sign the dar archive outside dar, you can still keep encryption with multi-recipients withing dar.
dar -c my_secret_group_stuff -z -K gnupg:firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com -R /home/secret --hash sha512 # check the archive has not been corrupted sha512sum -c my_secret_group_stuff.1.dar.sha512 #sign the hash file (it will be faster than signing the backup # in particular if this one is huge gpg --sign -b my_secret_group_stuff.1.dar.sha512 #send all three files to your recipients: my_secret_group_stuff.1.dar my_secret_group_stuff.1.dar.sha512 my_secret_group_stuff.1.dar.sha512.sig